Biological Science
Courses (BIO)


The following courses, numbered 5000-9999, are offered for graduate credit. Courses numbered 5000-6999 which are offered for undergraduate credit only may be found in the undergraduate bulletin, as well as all other undergraduate courses (numbered 0900-4999). Courses in the following list numbered 5000-6999 may be taken for undergraduate credit unless specifically restricted to graduate students as indicated by individual course limitations. For interpretation of numbering system, signs and abbreviations, see Course Signs and Abbreviations.

Most laboratory courses have a non-refundable materials fee and are so indicated in the Schedule of Classes.

5040 Biometry. Cr. 4 (LCT: 3;LAB: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or 3120; MAT 1800. Quantitative methods in biology. Statistical approach to data analysis and the design of experiments. Laboratory section permits actual analysis of selected statistical problems. (B)

5060 Special Topics. Cr. 1-6 (Max. 6)

Prereq: BIO 1500 or consent of instructor. Formalized treatment of the current state of knowledge in a significant area of biology. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. (Y)

5180 Field Investigations in Biological Sciences.
Cr. 2-12 (Max. 20) (FLD: 6)

Prereq: 12 credits in biology, consent of instructor. Field studies of one to fifteen weeks, emphasizing biological principles and techniques demonstrated in the field. (S)

5330 Recombinant DNA I. Cr. 3

Prereq: written consent of instructor. Review of origins of molecular biotechnology and its characteristic technologies; survey of applications of biotechnology to problems in industries. (F)

5480 (BIO 5480) Plant Pathology. Cr. 3

Prereq: BIO 1500 or 1520, and 2200. Principles of plant infection, structure and life cycle of plant pathogens, defense mechanisms, spread and control of plant disease. (S)

5550 Systematic Botany. Cr. 3 (LAB: 3;LCT: 2)

Prereq: BIO 1500 or 1520. Principles and methods of taxonomy and identification of native vascular plants. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (I)

5610 Vertebrate Embryology. Cr. 4 (LAB: 4;LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 2870 or 3400. Gametogenesis and fertilization; descriptive and analytical embryology of the sea urchin and amphibians; reproductive physiology and descriptive embryology of birds and mammals including humans. Laboratory studies of gametogenesis and development of sea urchin. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (W)

5620 Developmental Biology. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070. An analytical and comparative study of genetic and cellular mechanisms and their interaction with environmental factors to effect the developmental mechanisms which produce the adult organism. Origin and unfolding of structural patterns characteristic of different species; their evolutionary origins. (F)

5630 Histology. Cr. 4 (LAB: 4;LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 2870 or 3400. Characteristics and identification of normal mammalian tissues. Micro-anatomy of the mammal. Functional interpretation of microstructure and fine structure. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (F)

5640 Cancer Biology. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 2200 or 3400; PHY 2140; CHM 2260 or consent of instructor. Introduction to integrated analysis of cancer and cell biology, pathology, etiology and therapy. (F)

5680 (PSL 5680) Basic Endocrinology. Cr. 3

Prereq: PSL 3220 or BIO 3400 or equiv., or coreq: PSL 7010. Basic description of the human endocrine system, the endocrine control of several physiologic processes (growth, development, metabolism and reproduction), and a description of common endocrine disorders. (F)

5690 Animal Behavior. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: 16 credits in biology. Function, biological significance, causation, and evolution of species-typical behaviors which are part of the animal's behavorial repertoire under natural conditions. (I)

5700 Natural History of Vertebrates. Cr. 3 (LAB: 3;LCT: 2)

Prereq: 16 credits in biology. Life histories, survival and evolutionary strategies, laboratory and field identification, including study techniques of vertebrates; Michigan wildlife. Field trips. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (I)

5720 Ornithology. Cr. 3 (LAB: 3;LCT: 2)

Prereq: BIO 1500 or 1520. Morphology, systematics, ecology, evolution, physiology and behavior of birds. Field trips. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (I)

5730 Mammalogy. Cr. 4 (LCT: 2;LAB: 6)

Prereq: 16 credits in biology. Systematics, geographical distribution, ecology, adaptive radiation, patterns of growth and reproduction, physiology. Field trips. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (S)

5740 Entomology. Cr. 4 (LAB: 6;LCT: 2)

Prereq: BIO 1500 or 1520. The systematics, classification, and functional morphology of insects; methods of collection and study of insect specimens. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (I)

5750 Biology of Aging. (BIO 7750) Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or consent of instructor. Aging and senescence viewed as fundamental biological processes common to most organisms. Empirically-based discussion of investigative methods and accepted facts regarding aging, coupled with critical discussion of behavioral and biological interventions believed to retard or reverse the aging process; critical analysis of theoretical interpretations of this data. (W)

6000 Molecular Cell Biology I. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 2600; PHY 2140; CHM 2260. Analysis of cell structure at the molecular and cellular levels and the physiological consequences of these structures: isolation, physico-chemical properties, and biological attributes of cells, organelles, and biopolymers including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. (F)

6010 Molecular Cell Biology II. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 6000. Analysis of cell regulation at the molecular level. Cell development and differentiation. Genetic mechanisms including: DNA synthesis and repair, mechanism of gene expression and control. (W)

6020 Methods of Analyses. Cr. 2-4 (LCT: 2; or LAB: 6;LCT: 2)

Prereq: one year of chemistry and biology. Theory and application of instruments and procedures used in biological materials analysis. Topics include: error analysis, basic electronics, solutions and buffers spectroscopy, separation techniques, elemental analyses, laboratory application of computers. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (F)

6030 Physiological Genetics of Modern Disease. (BIO 7030) Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070. Physical and chemical properties of the genetic material; the fundamental mechanisms concerned with its replication, function, mutation, recombination and regulation; molecular basis of evolution. A critical presentation of interdisciplinary subjects of biology, biochemistry and biophysics in relation to recent advances in genetic engineering. (Y)

6060 Molecular Evolution. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070 and 3090 or 3120. Patterns and processes of evolutionary change on the DNA sequence level. Emphasis on models of nucleotide substitutions, and genic evolution. Methods of phylogenetic inference. (I)

6070 Human Genetics. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070. Mechanisms of human inheritance in individuals, families and populations. Sampling methods and data procurement. Statistical analysis of gene frequencies; cytogenetics and biochemical determinations of phenotypes. (B)

6080 Microbial and Cellular Genetics. (BIO 7080)
Cr. 4 (LCT: 4)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or equiv. Principles and current progress in genetics at the molecular and cellular levels. Emphasis on those features of microorganisms and cultured animal and human cells appropriate for the study of the fundamental mechanisms concerning recombination, replication, metabolic functioning. (Y)

6090 Evolutionary Genetics. Cr. 3 (LAB: 3;LCT: 2)

Prereq: BIO 3070 and 3090 or 3120. Theoretical bases for microevolutionary change in natural populations of organisms; basic to study of evolutionary genetics and evolutionary ecology. (B)

6120 Molecular Biology Laboratory I. Cr. 3 (LCT: 1;LAB: 6)

Prereq: BIO 6010 or written consent of instructor. Laboratory exercises illustrate methods and concepts of molecular biology and recombinant DNA analysis. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (Y)

6160 Molecular and Cellular Biophysics. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: one year of biology, chemistry and physics. Analysis of the biologically important aspects of thermodynamics, chemical bonding, macromolecular structure, biomembranes and transport processes.
(W)

6180 Membrane Biology. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: one year of biology and chemistry; BIO 2200 or 3400; 6000 or 6160 recommended. Comprehensive analysis of cellular and model membranes integrating molecular structure and physiological properties. Structural, dynamic, and physiological properties examined, including molecular and macromolecular assemblies, physical and chemical analysis of molecular motion, functional aspects including trans-membrane signalling. (Y)

6210 Ecology/Evolution. Cr. 4

Open only to middle- or high school teachers. Prereq: teaching certificate; mathematics through algebra. Ecological principles such as energy and nutrient flow demographics and populations; population genetics; genetics and phylogeny. (W)

6220 Biology of the Cell. Cr. 4

Open only to middle- or high school teachers. Prereq: teaching certificate. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function; basic biology and recent advances. (W)

6230 Genetics. Cr. 4

Open only to middle- or high school teachers. Prereq: teaching certificate; mathematics through algebra. Introductory prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures and functions of mechanisms of inheritance. (S)

6250 Biology Instruction for Teachers.
Cr. 2 (Max. 10) (LCT: 2)

Prereq: consent of instructor. Offered only for graduate credit; for teachers only. Discussion of basic biological principles in light of recent advances. (Y)

6260 Laboratory Biology for Teachers. Cr. 1 (Max. 5) (LAB: 1)

Prereq: consent of instructor. Offered only for graduate credit; for teachers only. Laboratory component of BIO 6250; basic laboratory techniques in light of recent advances in the biological sciences. (Y)

6330 Recombinant DNA II. Cr. 3

Prereq: BIO 5330 or written consent of instructor. Application of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology of contemporary eukaryotic systems. Topics include: specialized application of PCR for cloning, generation of antibodies, the expression of recombinant proteins in cultured cells and transgenic animal models. (W)

6450 Aquatic Botany. Cr. 4 (LCT: 3;LAB: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3120. Systematics, physiology and ecology of algae and higher aquatic plants. Material fee as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. (I)

6620 Advanced Evolution. Cr. 3

Prereq: BIO 3120 or 3090 or equiv. Continuation of BIO 31200; emphasis on evolutionary biology. Topics include: history of evolutionary thought, origins of life, evolution of the cell, evolution of genes, evolution and behavior, evolution of life history traits, phylogenetics, historical biogeography, tempo and mode of evolution, species concepts and speciation, nature of adaptation and adaptive radiations. (B)

6640 Advanced Ecology. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3120. Discussion and analysis of recent topics in ecological theory. (I)

6670 Comparative Marine Animal Physiology and
Biochemistry. (BIO 7670) Cr. 5 (LCT: 2;LAB: 9)

Prereq: written consent of instructor obtained in semester prior to registration; introductory biology and organic chemistry recommended. Intensified two-week program at a marine biological station. In-depth study of comparative physiology and biochemistry of marine animals. Daily field collecting, laboratory sessions and evening lectures. Individualized research projects; presentation at concluding symposium. (S)

6690 Neurobiology I. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3400 and 3100. Electrical and chemical signal transmission and signal processing in the nervous system. Integration of these functions into complex sensory and control mechanisms. Molecular mechanisms of electrical excitability and ion channels, neurotransmitters and receptors, second messengers, and feedback circuits. Neurobiology of motor control, sensory and regulatory systems. (F)

6800 (HWM 6800) Principles of Ecosystem Management.
Cr. 2

Prereq: BIO 2200. Fundamentals and concepts of ecosystem management: ecological, legal, economic, sociological, and institutional factors, management tools, and practical considerations. (Y)

6840 (PHC 6340) Chemical Basis of Pharmacology.
(CHM 6340) Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: CHM 2260 and BIO 1510 or equiv. Not applicable for biological sciences major credit. Mechanisms of action and metabolism of commonly-used drugs and toxic substances from the cellular level to whole biological systems. (Y)

6990 Honors Directed Study in Biology. Cr. 1-2

Prereq: written consent of instructor and department honors adviser in semester preceding election of course. Open only to junior or senior biology majors. To be taken under direction of Biological Sciences faculty. (T)

6994 Technical Communication in Molecular Biotechnology. Cr. 1-6

Prereq: admission to molecular biotechnology program or consent of instructor. Methods of written and oral communication in the biotechnology field. (W)

6997 Senior Seminar: Honors Program. Cr. 2 (SMR: 2)

Prereq: completion of Core Courses and a minimum of two credits in BIO 6990. Open only to Honors students in biology. (F,W)

6999 Terminal Essay: Honors Program. Cr. 2

Prereq: consent of department and Honors adviser; senior standing and BIO 6990. Preparation of a terminal essay, satisfactory completion of which assures Honors graduation, providing performance in preceding Honors courses has been at Honors level; to be taken under direction of Biological Sciences faculty. (T)

7000 Recent Advances in Cellular and Developmental
Biology. Cr. 3 (Max. 6) (LCT: 3)

Prereq: written consent of instructor. Formalized and in-depth treatment of the current state of knowledge in a significant area of cell and molecular biology. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes . (I)

7011 (MTX 7010) Principles of Toxicology. (PHC 7410) Cr. 3

Prereq: CHM 2260 and BIO 1510 or equiv. recommended. Basic concepts and principles of toxicology, including toxicity of major classes of chemicals (pesticides, solvents, metals) and organ systems (renal, immune, digestive, neuro and respiratory) affected. (F)

7030 (BIO 6030) Physiological Genetics of Modern Disease. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070. Physical and chemical properties of the genetic material; the fundamental mechanisms concerned with its replication, function, mutation, recombination and regulation; molecular basis of evolution. A critical presentation of interdisciplinary subjects of biology, biochemistry and biophysics in relation to recent advances in genetic engineering. (Y)

7080 (BIO 6080) Microbial and Cellular Genetics.
Cr. 4 (LCT: 4)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or equiv. Principles and current progress in genetics at the molecular and cellular levels. Emphasis on those features of microorganisms and cultured animal and human cells appropriate for the study of the fundamental mechanisms concerning recombination, replication, metabolic functioning. Includes independent studies. (Y)

7090 Molecular Genetics of Development. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 5620. An examination of the current and classical research literature dealing with the role of gene action in development. (B)

7100 Recent Advances in Microbiology and Molecular
Genetics. Cr. 3

Prereq: consent of instructor. Formalized and in-depth treatment of current state of knowledge in a significant area of microbiology and molecular genetics. (B)

7120 Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Cr. 3

Prereq: BIO 3070. Molecular basis of organogenesis in vascular plants. Current advances in plant development. Potential bases of morphological diversity and evolutionary change. (B)

7140 Plant Development Genetics. Cr. 3

Prereq: consent of instructor. Overview of angiosperm morphology, microgenesis and macrogenesis, embryogenesis and organogenesis. Text and primary literature used to understand molecular basis of plant development. (B)

7190 (ANA 7190) Neuroscience Survey. (I M 7190) (PHC 7190) (PSL 7190) (PSY 7190) Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Offered for S and U grades only. A substantive overview of neuroscience as a multifacted discipline presented by faculty from the departments of anatomy, biochemistry, biology, immunology and microbiology, neurology, pharmacology, physiology and psychology. A comprehensive critical essay required. (B)

7480 (BIO 5480) Plant Pathology. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 1500 or 1520, and 2200. Principles of plant infection, structure and life cycle of plant pathogens, defense mechanisms, spread and control of plant disease. (B)

7500 Prokaryotic Gene Structure and Function.
Cr. 4 (LCT: 4)

Prereq: BIO 3070, 3100 or equiv. Detailed analysis of structure, expression and replication off genes of prokaryotic cells and accociated extrachromosomal elements. Critical discussion of studies establishing central concepts in prokaryotic gene regulation, DNA structure and dynamics and nucleic acid enzymology. In-depth examination of molecular-genetic methodologies used in experimental investigations of prokaryotic systems. (Y)

7510 Eukaryotic Gene Structure and Function. Cr. 4 (LCT: 4)

Prereq:BIO 6330 or 7780. Knowledge of current molecular technology is absolute prerequisite for this course; prerequisite course must have been satisfied. Analysis of structure, replication, expression and regulation of eukaryotic genome. Experimental approaches to study eukaryotic gene expression, critical comprehension of current research, design of experiments in gene expression. (Y)

7620 (BIO 7620) Molecular Virology. (MBG 7620) Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or equiv. and CHM 6620 or equiv.; or consent of instructor. In-depth study of virus structure, mechanisms of viral replication, viral gene expression and regulation, viral pathogenesis, viral host interactions; and subviral pathogens. (I)

7660 Neurobiology II. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 6690 or consent of instructor. Advanced topics; emphasis on neurodevelopment using model systems, and possible molecular mechanism; models of higher order functions: learning, memory behavior, cognition; human disease and recent genetic characterization. (W)

7670 (BIO 6670) Comparative Marine Animal Physiology and Biochemistry. Cr. 5 (LCT: 2;LAB: 9)

Prereq: consent of instructor obtained in semester prior to registration; introductory biology and organic chemistry recommended. Intensified two-week program at a marine biological station; in-depth study of comparative physiology and biochemistry of marine animals. Daily field collecting, laboratory sessions, and evening lectures. Individualized research projects; presentation at concluding symposium.
(S)

7750 (BIO 5750) Biology of Aging. Cr. 3 (LCT: 3)

Prereq: BIO 3070 or consent of instructor. Aging and senescence viewed as fundamental biological processes common to most organisms. Discussion of investigative methods and accepted facts regarding aging; critical analysis of theoretical interpretation of the data. (W)

7780 Genetic Engineering Laboratory. Cr. 6

Prereq: BIO 6120, 6330, or written consent of program director. Continuation of BIO 6120 laboratory experience; screening procedures and DNA sequencing methods. (Y)

7996 Research Problems. Cr. 1-8 (Max. 4 for M.S. students; max. 32 for Ph.D. students who may take up to 8 credits per semester)

Prereq: written consent of adviser or instructor. Original investigation. (T)

8000 Special Topics. Cr. 1-6 (Max. 6, M.S.; max. 12, Ph.D.)

Prereq: written consent of instructor. Various frontier aspects of biology. Work may include lectures, laboratories or discussion. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. (Y)

8995 Graduate Seminar in Biology. Cr. 2 (Max. 4) (SMR: 2)

Prereq: graduate standing in biology. One semester required for research master's students; two semesters required for doctoral students. Presentations by graduate staff, advanced students, visiting lecturers. (Y)

8996 Research in Molecular Biotechnology. Cr. 1-4 (Max. 8)

Prereq: admission to biotechnology program or consent of instructor. Students spend two semesters doing research under the guidance of faculty associated with the Molecular Biotechnology Program and in other laboratories. (W,S)

8999 Master's Thesis Research and Direction. Cr. 1-8 (8 req.)

Prereq: written consent of instructor. (T)

9990 Pre-Doctoral Candidacy Research. Cr. 1-8 (Max. 10)

Prereq: consent of department. For Ph.D. program applicants. Offered for S and U grades only. Research in preparation for doctoral dissertation. (T)

9991 Doctoral Candidate Status I: Dissertation Research and Direction. Cr. 7.5

Prereq: consent of dissertation adviser; Ph.D. candidate in department. Required in academic-year semester following advancement to Ph.D. candidacy. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)

9992 Doctoral Candidate Status II: Dissertation Research and Direction. Cr. 7.5

Prereq: consent of dissertation adviser; BIO 9991. Required in academic-year semester following 9991. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)

9993 Doctoral Candidate Status III: Dissertation Research and Direction. Cr. 7.5

Prereq: consent of dissertation adviser; BIO 9992. Required in academic-year semester following 9992. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)

9994 Doctoral Candidate Status IV: Dissertation Research and Direction. Cr. 7.5

Prereq: consent of dissertation adviser; BIO 9993. Required in academic-year semester following 9993. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)

9995 Candidate Maintenance Status: Doctoral Dissertation Research and Direction. Cr. 0

Prereq: consent of dissertation adviser; completion of 30 credits in BIO 9999, or 9991-9994. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)

9996 Lab Rotation. Cr. 1-3 (Max. 4)

Prereq: consent of doctoral adviser. Open only to doctoral students and Plan A master's students. Research training in faculty laboratories on a rotating basis, up to two labs per semester. (T)

9999 Doctoral Dissertation Research and Direction.
Cr. 1-16 (30 req.)

Prereq: written consent of doctoral adviser. Offered for S and U grades only. (T)